The Four Vice Presidents of CPP,
His Excellency, Lok Chumteav,
Party President and Leaders of all the political parties invited today,
First of all, I would like to extend a warm welcome to His Excellency, Lok Chumteav, leaders of all political parties who have volunteered to participate in and sign the cooperation of alliance today. As the host, I am pleased that His Excellency, Lok Chumteav and the leaders of the parties came to the headquarters of the Cambodian People’s Party today. We all know that it all started with 18 political parties requesting to meet me to form an alliance. Starting from that initiative of these 18 political parties, I informed the other parties, thus brings the cooperation and form of an alliance to 28 political parties today. In order to make it easier to understand and present to my compatriots, I should read the contents of the following cooperation agreement and alliance of political parties in Khmer, and I should explain some points:
(A) Content of the Cooperation Agreement
and Form of Alliances between Political Parties
This is the agreement on cooperation and alliance between political parties in Cambodia to promote the implementation of the policy of national unity to strengthen the patriotic forces to participate in maintaining peace and political stability to ensure the long-term peace and development of the 28 parties. I do not have to re-read the names of the 28 parties […]:
1. Strengthen good cooperation with each other equally, with equal rights, respect for the independence and autonomy of each party for the benefit of the nation and the people.
2. Commitment to uphold the Constitution of the Kingdom of Cambodia, defend the constitutional monarchy, promote liberal democracy, pluralism, guarantee human rights, respect the law and social justice, strengthen national unity to build an independent, peaceful, free, democratic, neutral and social progress in Cambodia […]
3. Commitment to protect the independence, sovereignty and territorial integrity of the Kingdom of Cambodia to maintain peace, political stability and security, social order to ensure the process of sustainable socio-economic development and improve the lives of all people in society.
4. Collaborate to prevent and eliminate extremist politics from the Kingdom of Cambodia. Absolutely oppose the tactics and actions of any medium that seeks to destroy national unity, destabilize society, destroy democracy, and attempt to bring about any change that is unconstitutional and against the law in force.
5. Ensure comprehensive cooperation that the electoral process in accordance with the principles of liberal multi-party democracy, both national and sub-national, both universal and non-universal, is conducted in accordance with the provisions of the Constitution and the laws in force with accuracy, fairness and safety.
6. Loyally adhere to the national interest in the principles of alliance and cooperation, support each other, do not oppose each other in any way, including not campaigning against each other during the election season and do not ally with any political party or group which opposes the partners in its alliance.
7. Strengthen cooperation relations to implement good results in accordance with the content of this agreement, in case of problems, appoint representatives to discuss and resolve issues peacefully.
8. Open to other legitimate political parties that support and wish to join the cooperation and alliance between political parties in Cambodia in the spirit of this agreement. This agreement is effective from the date of signing.
(1) The party in alliance is not under the control of any party and is an equal partner
(Above) is the content already agreed between the political parties. I would like to take this opportunity to express my appreciation to the working groups of the 28 parties that have contributed to the drafting of the cooperation and alliance, which we will sign soon. I should clarify some of the points. To start, I should emphasize on the first point about this alliance […] that all parties are not under the control of any one particular party. You are all equal partners. All parties are not under the CPP. We all volunteer to cooperate with each other. Even though the CPP is in power and has more human and financial resources than any other party, we do not consider other parties to be its juniors. The legitimate political parties in alliance have the same rights. A while back, I defined the formula for joining (the alliance) as 1 plus 2. Since the CPP is hosting today, however, I have invited all four vice presidents (of the CPP) to join. This does not mean that the CPP is more involved, but as hosts, we welcome all guests and hope that other parties understand the participation of our party that is higher than other parties.
In this context, I would like to reiterate that all parties remain autonomous and have the right to set their political direction in line with the principles as we have agreed upon. From now on, you all will face immediate attacks from the oppositions to be a puppet of the CPP. The word foreign puppet or CPP puppet, has become a habit of discrediting their opponents by the oppositions. Whoever supports you, that day and that hour, that person is good. But an hour later if s/he does not support them, s/he’s becoming a different person. This is a lack of respect for the freedom of individuals or political parties. Although the CPP has lots of human and financial resources, the CPP does not despise other parties, no matter what form or what kind of resources they may have, but treat them as an unequal partner.
(2) Those who do not know the history become experts in interpreting the Paris Agreement
Second point, we are committed to implement the Constitution of the Kingdom of Cambodia, protect the constitutional monarchy, promote liberal democracy, pluralism, ensure respect for the rule of law and social justice, strengthen solidarity and independence, and build an independent, peaceful, free, democratic, neutral and progressive Cambodia, according to the motto of the nation, Nation, Religion, and King. On this point, we wanted to the Constitution to cover every aspect. For the 28 parties, we are not naïve to be aware of what the Constitution is. What’s funny is on October 22 and 23, there had been a celebration of the 32nd anniversary of the Paris Agreement, in which, beyond my understanding, some people, who do not know from where the Paris Agreement comes, have claimed to be expert on interpreting the Paris Peace Agreement.
(3) The elements of the Paris Agreement are enshrined in the Constitution of the Kingdom of Cambodia
In this room there are at least two people, me and Samdech Pichey Sena Tea Banh, who are signatories to the Paris Agreement. We have started negotiations with Prince Norodom Sihanouk to gradually create settlement between the Cambodian factions, whereas foreign partners, including the perm five countries, did their parts to support the process. But those people have misinterpreted the practical aspects of the Paris Agreement. What we want to emphasize now is not the time to implement the Paris Agreement, but the time to abide by the Constitution of the Kingdom of Cambodia, because all the elements of the agreement are already enshrined in the Constitution of the Kingdom of Cambodia. We raise the question of whether it is now necessary to reorganize the four Cambodian factions. Did the prosecution of the Khmer Rouge go in accordance with the Paris Agreement? Whether the results of the Khmer Rouge trial is acceptable or not? […] I do not look down on anyone, but what I want is the respect of the true history that we already had gone through. Some foreigners made misinterpretation. At this point in time, Cambodia respects only the Constitution. The spirit of the Paris Agreement is respected, but it has already inscribed into Cambodia’s constitution and laws.
(5) Were there no Phnom Penh’s nods, would there be the Paris Agreement?
Who would want to forget what they have done (good for the country)? The former King Father and I are the two main characters that bring about the Paris Agreement. If there was no agreement from Phnom Penh at that time, especially from me, would the Paris Agreement have been reached? Look at Mali, where there was an agreement on a UN peacekeeping operation, but now the Malian authorities are demanding that the UN leave. The Cambodian (peacekeeping troops, who have been) in Mali for several years has had to withdraw. Angola also has a United Nations peacekeeping operation, but it has not yet asked the UN peacekeeping force to move out. This is where I want to emphasize that you cannot take the Paris Agreement to suppress the Cambodian Constitution. We must study the Paris Agreement carefully. When does the transition phase start? And when does it end? Why did the UNTAC withdraw? The Paris Agreement required (to be enshrined in) the Constituent Assembly, (which later) form the National Assembly, which then approved the formation of the government. The UN operation was completed by then.
(6) The constitutional monarchy is Cambodia’s choice, not stated in the Paris Agreement.
Why after 32 years, there is a demand for the reimplementation of the Paris Agreement again? Does that mean we have to reorganize the four control areas and reorganize four armed groups? The Khmer Rouge Prosecution and the abolition of the Khmer Rouge military and political organization was not enshrined in the Paris Agreement. Democracy and constitutional monarchy are not enshrined in the Paris Agreement too. Is it wrong? There were two drafts of the Constitution taken to Pyongyang, one of which is a draft for Cambodia to be a republican nation and the other (one for the country to be a constitutional monarchy), which was drafted by us, and which His Majesty (mentioned in) his royal address on the 30th Anniversary of the Constitution of Cambodia a few days ago […] they talk about a liberal multi-party democracy, but not about a Republic or a constitutional monarchy. We, the Cambodian people, have chosen it and enshrined in the constitution.
(7) The 28 political parties must be committed to defending the Constitutional Monarchy
We need to talk about protecting the constitutional monarchy. Why do we need to talk about this? His Excellency and Lok Chumteav are well aware that in the last few years, there have been people who dared to demand that HM the King step down from the throne. What is that? In our Constitution, there is a paragraph that stated “the constitutional monarchy and multi-party liberal democracy cannot be reversable”. The National Assembly, no matter how many votes there may be, cannot reverse these two points. Why are there people demanding the King to step down from the throne? We are all 28 political parties here, and maybe more parties to join at a later stage, must be committed to defending the constitutional monarchy. This is the duty of all of us. Those who do not respect this point do not respect the framework of the Constitution. Insulting the King’s power, the King himself, demanding the King to step down from the throne, is a serious violation of the agreement, (which states that we have to) protect the Constitution and the constitutional monarchy.
8) To protect the constitutional monarchy in Cambodia demands national movement
In that, it also raises issues related to liberal democracy, pluralism, protection of human rights and respect for various laws. But I would like to highlight the important points so that we can all work together to defend the constitutional monarchy, protect the throne, and thus protect the king. As you all know, the issue had changed in 1970, when a coup turned (our country) from a monarchy to a republic. We tried to bring about the return of the monarchy. Now we are happy (to have been able to do so), but there is an extremist group trying to destroy the monarchy in Cambodia. In order to defend (this achievement), it requires a national movement to protect. I am very happy to see that there are up to 28 parties that have joined together to defend the monarchy.
(9) Cambodia is not a separate property of any party, but of all
(Third point) related to the issue of protecting independence, sovereignty, territorial integrity, which requires all forces to defend together. This territory is not the separate territory of any party, not the territory of the ruling CPP, but the territory of all. We have the duty to protect it. What is more important is the protection of peace and political stability, because the problem here (is the challenge that is going to) destroy peace […] (as) you have really seen that when there is peace, many do not think much about peace. When peace is lost, peace is remembered. The Russia-Ukraine War, the recent war in Gaza between Israel and Hamas reminds people about peace. Countries at war are longing for peace.
(10) Since December 29, 1998, Cambodia has had no internal borders
At this point, we must not tolerate anyone, any group and any party that intends to destroy the peace that we hard fought for. How many people had died for today? In our country now a today, although there may still be some roads in difficult condition, but compared to the past, it is way better. Importantly, we have had no internal boundaries since December 29, 1998. Before, Cambodia had at least two internal borders at the same time, until recently, there were four internal borders […] until we could unite into one territory, one control area, one Constitution, one monarchy, one armed force and one civilian government. Although we have many political parties, we no longer have armed conflicts. Therefore, what we demand now is all national forces and political parties participating in this agreement to work together to safeguard this peace.
(11) Use the word “offline destruction” because there are many forms of overthrow
Due to repeated attempts, for instance this November 9th movement, which is a great act of treason, we cannot tolerate, and the court continues to prosecute this group. Is inciting people and the armed forces to overthrow the government, leading to the arrest of the Prime Minister a right to freedom of expression or a declaration of war? That is why we want to send a message to some foreigners who lack understanding of freedom of expression and the movement of extrajudicial deposition. Let me reaffirm to Mam Sonando who wanted to use the term “coup”. We do not need to use the word “coup”. We use the word “extrajudicial destruction.” Mam Sonando sent me his request to add the word “coup”. We do not need to use that term, because there are many forms of deposition than just a coup.
12) Political alliances aim to protect peace, provide opportunities for socio-economic development
Now there is an armed coup d’etat, but also a color revolution movement. Today in Cambodia, there is still the color revolution attempt, which I sent a message to some countries and some NGOs that are disguising under of shadow of the color revolution movement, to withdraw themselves. We do not tolerate you because peace is hard to find, and we have dropped so much blood and tears of many Cambodians for it. We must unite […] we do not give anyone a chance to act in destroying this peace. The CPP alone is not enough. Our alliance aims to protect the peace we have so hard to find. It is the peace that provides opportunities for socio-economic development. When peace is lost as it’s happening in Ukraine (what can be done)? A country at war is only having destruction.
13) Party members educated not to follow the example of extremist politics
Another point is to jointly prevent extremist politics. Extremist politics is dangerous. It is the cause of the war. Extremist politics, whether left or right, is all (dangerous). Not only our country, anyone who has ever lived in France knows. In the last election between the two candidates, Marine Le Pen and Emanuel Macron, what measures were taken in France? All political parties worked together to prevent Le Pen (from coming to power) and Macron had said, “I understand some of the ballots are not Macron-loving votes, but ultra-movement blocking votes. Here we must work together to curb extremist movements. In order to prevent extremist movements, it is necessary for us to educate our party members not to follow the example of extremist politics that endangers the nation and people.
It is the real cause of war […] we know where the extremists are. I only see. The temple of Koh Ker has just been inscribed on the World Heritage list. Most of the political parties here declare their congratulations because it is a national treasure. But some political parties do not even celebrate it because they are afraid that if they do, it is like celebrating the work of the Royal Government led by the CPP. You may ask (of this attitude), what kind it is? Extremism in their minds will destroy our nation. As I used to aim to get rid of the Khmer Rouge political and military organizations that I had accomplished, I want to gather all of you to do one thing that is not difficult and is the right thing to do, and it is to prevent extremism, whether left or right extremism, and take a middle ground.
These days, as far as I know, the Royal Government of Cambodia or the CPP is having a hard time. To support or to go against Hamas? We support the Palestinian cause, but we do not support the extremist movement of Hamas, which repeatedly attacks Israel […] the extremist group has a very small group, but it is part of the Palestinians. It harms the Fatah group or the Palestinian movement, the Palestinian cause. It is hard to take position in a conflict that caused one of our students to die there. This is where we need to work together. We are not required to kill anyone, but importantly, we educate our citizens and party members not to follow extremist politics. France is more afraid of Le Pen coming to power. All parties, even if they do not like Macron, have to vote for Macron, […]
(15) The Parties in alliance prepare a simple and flexible internal regulation
I would like to make a recommendation. After the agreement is signed, we should prepare an internal regulation that requires the parties to send representatives to attend. The CPP will send the chairman of the party’s organizing committee to draft the internal regulations. These regulations are simple, not too complicated, and flexible. For example, on the issue of the process, we cannot just sign it and walk away, until we meet again five years later. We need to think about how many months we meet once, and to what extent do we meet, and why do we have to meet? Should we rent a new headquarters or use the CPP’s? There must be agreement upon it. To avoid difficulty in renting a place, we may just use the facilities at the CPP headquarters.
The CPP headquarters may have an office to facilitate the gathering of political parties. For example, the coordination group should meet once every month, two months or three months. Let’s meet at that place, so we have to have the so-called internal regulations for the consultation process, or we can find another office outside of this place. Phnom Penh Capital Hall can do something about it. The Phnom Penh CPP, we can find another place if there is a reluctance to come to the CPP headquarters. But coming here does not cost much. Elsewhere, it costs money. Why should we go find a house, where we pay for water and electricity, since there is this big building here?
(16) Let us decide of deciding right – 50 plus 1 or 2/3 votes?
In the time to come, there will be two nonuniversal suffrages – a senate election and a council election. Some political parties – such as the Cambodian Youth Party, the Khmer United Party, the Cambodian Nationality Party – are going to participated in the election. These parties can form an alliance with each other. It does not need to be an alliance of all the parties, because they have their own elected representatives. Sometimes three parties cooperate, for example, where the Khmer United Party stands its candidate, members of its allied political parties are mobilized to vote for him/her. That party casts Cambodian citizenship wherever they stand and which members vote. Vice versa, members of the Khmer United Parties vote for the allied parties in return in other constituencies. That is a cooperation. Not only we do not fight each other, we can have a cooperative approach. However, we do not need to include this in the internal regulations.
There is an issue related to how do we open for other legitimate political parties that support and wish to join the cooperation of alliance between the political parties in Cambodia in the spirit of this agreement. This issue is not self-determined by the CPP alone to decide whether or not to allow admission. This right must be decided among the 28 political parties, whether we have to get 50 plus 1 or 2/3 to decide on the new party […] the participating party must be decided by consensus or by a majority vote. Plus-one or two-thirds majority is not the decision of the CPP. We have to set up an ad hoc working group or a committee to draft an internal regulation for the leaders to approve, and then we start working with mutual understanding.
I think that is about all. After the signing, some of our leaders may stay, and some may continue to whatever they need to. Today the TV is broadcasting live. The father is talking here and the son is talking in Kampong Cham. The Bayon Tv has got two relay stations though. One broadcasts the Prime Minister (and one broadcasts the CPP President). I have now elevated up one class. Previously, I was the Prime Minister and now I’m the father of the Prime Minister. Legal or illegal, so they say, it is even better if they do not accept it as legal. For the whole of their life there is no debt that we owed to them. The word “unrecognized” is tantamount to whether to please them or to the 6.3 million people who voted for the CPP. We find it difficult to talk to the extremists. Now that we have reached the signing part, we can allow the journalists in for questions. If you still want to hear how Hun Sen’s press conference goes and how to respond to the press, you can sit and listen.
(B) Press Conference
TVK: I am Sok Pich Ratana from TVK … there are two questions. Today is a historic day when all 27 political parties unite with the CPP for the cause of the nation and the people of Cambodia … unprecedented in history. Question1 … after this agreement is signed, what are the expected benefits that we will get, Samdech? Question2 … the previous term, we have the Supreme Council of Consultation and Recommendation (SCCR), and for the new term we have this alliance agreement between the 27 political parties. Are there any differences or similarities between the current agreement and the previous term regarding the SCCR?
Samdech Techo: Thank you. Before I answer this question, I would like to thank Excellencies, Lok Chumteavs, and Presidents of all political parties for signing the Cooperation and Alliance Agreement (CAA) today. This is a demonstration of solidarity and openness for the common goal of peacekeeping and development in Cambodia. Answering to the question […] regarding the benefits of anticipation, it is known that we need a force to uphold the Constitution, defend the constitutional monarchy, defend peace, defend independence, sovereignty, and prevent and eliminate extremist politics. Previously, our forces were scattered, but now, from each scattered political party, we have gathered a strong political force. It is more than half of the political parties in Cambodia are allied with each other.
I expect this to be part of our national unity. Although we have differences on this or that issue, we have agreed on major principles for our country. What we need to see is that if it is completely the same, there is no need for different political parties. We may be the same on some and different on others. That is why we have 28 different parties and more (would be joining us). Importantly, the common principles are agreed upon by incorporating them into our cooperation agreements, not by leaps and bounds, as some allies aim to address the issue of the nonuniversal suffrage of the Senate or Council in February and May.
I am not mocking anyone, but we also know that they are attacking us. Let me reply to them that this alliance is not a snatch. This alliance has a long-term goal for our country. Therefore, from the fragmentation and separation on the common goal, we have come together as a force to work together and learn to live together. It is an important part of building a culture of dialogue, building democracy in a country with many political parties. We do not look at each other in a situation where different politicians hate each other, but we learn to live together.
The second point is about the differences between the CAA and the SCCR. I should talk about the SCCR first. In the sixth term, I initiated the idea of establishing the supreme council of consultation and recommendation (SCCR) with political parties participating in the election. But coming into the new term, the new Prime Minister is more open-minded in that. He opens up opportunities for all political parties that are legitimate parties registered with the Ministry of Interior to participate. Therefore, the number of parties participating in the SCCR is up to 30 political parties. Thus, it is part of the direct contribution between the political parties and the Royal Government itself. It is an opportunity for political parties to provide input for the Royal Government.
The alliance that we signed today is not the same as that of the members of the SCCR, because the work of the Royal Government is a different matter. The Royal Government may submit to the CAA based on its specificities, for example, draft laws or certain action plans that require consultation with the council. But for the signing of the alliance today, it is in line with some of the goals that we set out in this agreement as a broad framework in which we can work together in the spirit of solidarity, cooperation on matters related to the protection of the Constitution and the protection of the monarchy, independence, sovereignty, peace for the development and elimination of extremist politics, which is the source of Cambodia’s long-term danger that must not be allowed to happen.
Apsara Radio and Television AMF: I, Chhun Lida, … please allow me to give you my respect and state my question – the first question is regarding the signing of the alliance agreement between political parties in Cambodia. Is there anything indicate that extremist political movement in Cambodia can be eliminated? And another related to democracy in Cambodia, how will the alliance between the parties and the Cambodian People’s Party today have an impact on democracy in Cambodia? After today’s agreement, will there be no more opposition parties in Cambodia?
Samdech Techo: Thank you. The good point is that the head of movement is now 75 years old. There will not be another 10 years for five more times. There is only one mastermind, but there are some followers. So, if the mastermind is out, his followers will be too. If they do not listen to this fact and continue to commit extremism, the government either of Hun Sen or of Hun Manet, or any other government, will do it … no wonder […] if you do not believe this, just try it. We, however, do not want that to happen as it has an impact on our society. We gather political parties and educate their members not to do anything that is awkward or in an extremist way. This extremism happens in almost every country, just more or less. We do not let this extremism go too far. I expect that the 28 parties with millions of members, this alliance will become a major force to curb extremist politics that extremists cannot step in to expand. On the contrary, these 28 party forces will destroy this extremist movement […]
How do I address you – Kanha (Miss) or (Ms). Both is okay. So single? In our language there is a difference between virgin or single. If both is okay, I would address you Neang (Ms). Regarding the first point, strengthen good cooperation with each other with equal right and footing, respect the independence and autonomy of each party for the benefit of the nation and the people of Cambodia. I said from the beginning, these parties came here not as descendants of the CPP, but as partners for the common good of the nation. Therefore, it does not affect the democratic process in Cambodia. On the contrary, it improves the democratic process in Cambodia. It is so when the political parties – although having different politics, viewpoints – can sit together. Today, even if red wine is scarce, rice wine will do just fine […]
Your question is if there will be any more opposition party? Now the opposition groups are forming an alliance to oppose this CAA. There is no end to the opposition. This does not mean that everyone agrees with the CPP. We agree on big principles. Even socio-economic development measures to reduce poverty, methods can vary from party to party. That is to say in this alliance, it has nothing to do with the democratic process, nor it’s the cancellation of the opposition’s voice. The kind of opposition’s voice on the other side is scorning us.
I used the word “scorn” because I get daily information from their meetings. Sometimes it is too much, but I do not say anything. Their contempt leaked. When more than three talk to each other, you cannot hide. Please tell them that only talk about themselves. Do not talk about others, or bothers other people’s rights. You strengthen your party. You do not have to attack others. Now those who are in Washington, America are fighting for power with those inside the country. You think I do not know?
Let me remind you again, it does not affect the democratic process, instead it makes the democratic process of Cambodia better in that each party is autonomous, but they know how to sit together and work together. If the 28 parties split their respective zones, like each occupying the front, the middle and the end of the village, then you cannot even find people to row the boat. Now that we in alliance, we may have rowers from more than 10 parties in a boat at the water festival that is coming in November. It is better than when we cannot look at each other straight in the eyes. I think this is a good culture for a country with a lot of political parties that are not in confrontation with each other. Thank you. More questions, please.
Fresh News: I have two questions … first … will the alliance between the CPP and the other 27 political parties give more power or popularity to the CPP? second … what does Samdech think about the alliance between the four (opposition) political parties compared to the alliance of the Cambodian People’s Party with the 27 political parties at this time?
Samdech Techo: Thank you for giving me this question. First, can this alliance be popular for the CPP? I would like to reiterate that the party does not seek to use this alliance to increase its popularity. The CPP seeks this alliance in response to the wishes of the other 18 parties to serve the purposes set out in the agreement. The CPP alone is “neither over nor under” compared to before alliances. But the good thing is the CPP did the addition. This means that we have made friends with other political parties to cooperate on major goals for the benefit of the nation’s livelihood. The CPP does not seek supremacy to swallow other parties. Unlike in the 1990s, some parties were swallowed by some other parties. The CPP does not do that. We treat all partners as partners on equal right and footing with us.
For other parties that also established the alliance too, I would suggest that you put the questions to them. Answering for them will not be good. You have also studied what goals they want to achieve. I do not answer for them. I hope you understand […] I seem to have revealed a little bit that they have achieved a short-term goal for the non-universal suffrage of the Senate. I also received information that they are still thinking about forming a new party, “under what party are they disguising under.” This is just information. Please excuse me for saying that […] please go and ask the questions to those parties.
I think we run out of time. I will not give a chance for other questions as I have to meet with the party before meal. I have to meet with about 10 or 11 parties and after we will meal together, because we still have time left […] next time we should be able to eat together again. This year there is also a Water Festival. We should each try to put a boat to race […] win or lose is normal […] let’s have fun together.
I thank you the journalists who participated in today’s briefing. I saw the live broadcast. Now our county is more modern. We have live broadcasting and I also watch live from here. Political parties affiliated with the Alliance can also request any suitable portion of time from the radio and television stations that the CPP has […] which I think could be helpful – broadcasting any political party events, congresses or whatever. That is called helping each other. A cooperation. It is the right way. If there are more ways, we can help each other, provide opportunities for each other, it’s all good.
For other parties, I dare not talk on their behalf. Please do not talk about my issue, which I receive every day. I know them very well – the extremist group. Wherever I go, they disdained me. Please be careful. Do not do it again and again. Blessings to Samdech, Excellencies, Lok Chumteavs, Ladies and Gentlemen, may you experience the five blessings – age, class, happiness, strength, and power of the Buddha. Thank you./.